With lesson one the idea is to get familiar with some of the basic concepts and terminology as well as the solderless breadboard.
All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are made up of tiny particles we call electrons, protons and neutrons. Protons and, usually, neutrons form the center (nucleus) of the atom. Electrons spin around the nucleus.
All matter is made up of these few parts. It is only the number and arrangement of the particles that makes one type of matter different from another.
These particles can have an electrical charge. Protons have a positive electrical charge and electrons have a negative electrical charge. Positive and negative are attracted to one another while like charges repel one another.
In this video I take look inside a breadboard:
This video from Adafruit goes in-depth:
Linear Regulators on Wikipedia
Wikipedia: LED circuit
Comment on the Troubled Circuits section here.